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Field Mark Definitions


1. Crown: Often applied to the whole of the top of the head, including the forehead and the upper part of the nape.   However, it most often refers to the very top of the head between these two areas. From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 



2. Forehead: The front part of the crown, extending down to the base of the bill. It may be distinctively coloured, as in the white  (unfeathered) 'frontal shield' of the White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons and in the red (feathered) forehead of the Redpoll Carduelis flammea . From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 



3. Eyebrow: A more or less prominent curving streak above a bird's eye, not to be confused with an eye stripe. A good example is found in the Redwing Turdus iliacus. From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 



4. Eye-ring: A ring of colour around the eye, as seen, for example, in the male Blackbird Turdus merula. It is also called an
'orbital ring'. From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 



5. Eye line: A line 'through' a bird's eye, as seen, for example, in the Blue Tit Parus caeruleus.
From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 



6. Nape: The back of a bird's head between the crown and the hind neck. The adjective, meaning 'of the nape', is 'nuchal'.
The angle at the rear end of the head is called the 'occiput', for which the adjective is 'occiptital'.
From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 



7. Upper Mandible: One of the two parts of a bird's bill (the upper and lower mandibles). They are bony outgrowths from the skull  covered with horny sheaths of keratin.
From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 



8. Ear Patch: The short feathers covering the ears, which have no external parts and are situated behind and slightly below the eyes.  From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 



9. Lower Mandible: One of the two parts of a bird's bill (the upper and lower mandibles). They are bony outgrowths from the skull  covered with horny sheaths of keratin.  From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 



10. Back: The part of a bird's exterior between the mantle and the rump, thus the middle part of the bird's upper surface.
From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 



11. Throat: The part of a bird's exterior immediately below the chin and above the breast. The adjective meaning 'of the
     throat' is 'gular'.  From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 



12. Scapulars: The feathers which cover the shoulder of a bird, namely the area where the upperwing joins the body.
From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 



13. Secondary Feathers: The inner flight feathers ('remiges') of a bird's wing, between the primary and tertiary feathers. The  secondaries vary in number from nine to twenty, according to the type of bird, and they are embedded in the skin of the bird's 'forearm'. Their chief use is in propulsion.
From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 



14. Shoulder: Feathers overlying bases of  the scapulars.
 
 
 
 



15. Wing bars: A line across the wing contrasting in colour with the rest of it. A long and fairly wide wing bar, such as that of the Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa, may be called a 'wing stripe'. Wing bars and stripes are importanti identification features in many species ...  From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 



16. Rump: The section of a bird's upperparts immediately above the upper tail coverts. It is often conspicuously coloured and so can be an important identification feature, for example in some types of wader. The rump is also called the 'uropygium'.
From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 



17. Belly: The lowest part of the undersurface of a bird.  From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 
 



18. Breast: The part of a bird's exterior between the throat and the belly. The upper part of the breast may be called the
     'chest'.  From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 
 
 



19. Uppertail Coverts: Feathers which cover the base of the tail.
 
 
 
 



20. Side: Between the belly and the wing.
 
 
 
 



21. Primaries: The outer flight feathers ('remiges') of a bird's wing, used chiefly in manoeuvring. There are usually ten primaries and they are embedded in the skin of the bird's hand. The secondary and tertiary feathers, which are shorter than the primaries, form the other group of flight feathersFrom Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 
 



22. Outer Tail Feathers: Part of the tail farthest from the center.
 
 
 
 
 
 



23. Undertail Coverts: Feathers covering underside of base of tail. Also called crissum.
From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 
 
 



24. Flank: The side of a bird's belly, appearing immediately below the forepart of the closed wing. The flanks may have a
     distinctive pattern or colour, as in the Water Rail Rallus acquaticus and Redwing Turdus iliacus respectively.
From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 
 



25. Moustachial stripe: A streak extending backwards and downwards from the base of the bill, above the malar region, as seen in the Bearded Tit Panurus biarmicus and the Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus. This feature may also be called a    'whisker'. A similar streak immediately below it is called a 'sub-moustachial stripe', while a still lower one is a
'malar stripe'.
From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary
 
 
 
 



26. Chin: The part of a bird's exterior immediately below the bill and above the throat.
From Peter Weaver's Birdwatcher's Dictionary